Glossary

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Tethered Spinal Cord

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RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)

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Post Laminectomy Syndrome

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Neck Pain

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Lumbar Radicular Syndrome

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Leg Pain

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LBP (Low back pain)

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Joint Pain

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Headaches

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Fractures

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Foot Pain

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Fibrositis

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Epidural Abscesses

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Degenerative Facet Joints

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Cervical Spondylosis

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Cervical Radicular Syndrome

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Cervical Facet Syndrome

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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Back Pain

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Arm Pain

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Whiplash

Represents a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension and flexion.

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Wedge Fractures

A wedge fracture is an angled vertebral compression fracture.

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Vasomotor

Relating to those nerves or the nerve centers that supply the muscle fibers of the walls of blood vessels

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Vasodilation

Dilation of the blood vessels

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Trigeminal Neuralgia

A neuropathic disorder of one or both of the trigeminal nerves. It causes episodes of intense pain in any or all of the following: the ear, eye, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, teeth, or jaw on one side and alongside of the face.

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Tietze’s Disease

A rare, inflammatory disorder characterized by chest pain and swelling of the cartilage of one or more of the upper ribs (costochondral junction).

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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

A rare condition that involves pain in the neck and shoulder, numbness and tingling of the fingers, and a weak grip. The thoracic outlet is the area between the rib cage and collar bone.

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Thoracic Nerve

The spinal nerves emerging from the thoracic vertebrae

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Tenosynovitis

Inflammation of the lining of the sheath that surrounds a tendon (the cord that joins muscle to bone).

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Syringomyelia

A disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord

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Synovial Cyst

A ganglion (tissue mass) of the adjacent joint, caused by leakage of fluid from the joint into the surrounding tissue

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Sympathetic Nerves

Part of the autonomic nervous system and located on the front surface of the spinal column.

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SMP

 

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Suboccipital Nerve

The first spinal nerve, exits the spinal cord between the skull and the first cervical vertebra.

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Sudomotor

Relating to the nerves that stimulate the sweat glands to activity

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Strains

An injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching

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Stellate Ganglion

A sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion

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Sprains

An injury to ligaments that is caused by being stretched beyond their normal capacity

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Sports Injuries

Injuries that occur to athletes participating in sporting events. In many cases, these types of injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when participating in a certain activity

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Spondylosis

A condition related to degeneration of bone that ultimately results in narrowing.

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Spondylolysis

Defect in the connection between vertebrae that can lead to small stress fractures (breaks) in the vertebrae

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Spondylolisthesis

A condition in which a bone (vertebra) in the lower part of the spine slips out of the proper position onto the bone below it

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Spinal stenosis of cervical region

Narrowing of cervical spinal canal

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Spinal Stenosis

A medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the spinal cord and nerves

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Spinal Fractures

A fracture affecting the bones of the spinal column

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Spinal Cord Simulation

Exerting pulsed electrical signals to the spinal cord to control chronic pain. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS), in the simplest form, consists of stimulating electrodes implanted in the epidural space, an electrical pulse generator implanted in the lower abdominal area or gluteal region, conducting wires connecting the electrodes to the generator, and the generator remote control.

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Spinal Cord Injury

Cause myelopathy or damage to nerve roots or myelinated fiber tracts that carry signals to and from the brain

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Somatic Pain

A type of nociceptive pain in which the nerves that detect somatic pain are located in the skin and deep tissues. These specialized nerves, called nociceptors, pick up sensations related to temperature, vibration and swelling in the skin, joints and muscles

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Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

An autosomal co-dominant genetic blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape

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Scoliosis

A medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side

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Sciatica

Pain is felt in the lower back, buttock, and/or various parts of the leg and foot caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots that give rise to each sciatic nerve.

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Rhizotomy

A neurosurgical procedure that selectively coagulates or transects problematic nerve roots in the spinal cord

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chronic disease occurring because the body’s immune system isn’t functioning properly.  The immune system fights infections and in people with RA, the immune system also attacks the body. RA is also called an autoimmune disease.
Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Rheumatism

A non-specific term for medical problems affecting the joints and connective tissue

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Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

One or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy).  The nerve(s) may be inflamed, pinched (compressed), or working ineffectively due to a lack of blood flow.

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Radiculitis

Pain “radiated” along the dermatome (sensory distribution) of a nerve due to inflammation or other irritation of the nerve root (radiculopathy) at its connection to the spinal column.

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Piriformis Syndrome

A neuromuscular disorder that occurs when the sciatic nerve is compressed or otherwise irritated by the piriformis muscle causing pain, tingling and numbness in the buttocks and along the path of the sciatic nerve descending down the lower thigh and into the leg

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Phantom Limb (Syndrome)

The sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts.

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Peripheral Nerves

Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord

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Pathophysiology

The functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease

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Paralysis

The complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Paralysis can cause loss of feeling or loss of mobility in the affected area

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Pain

A sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage

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Osteoporosis

A disease that causes a loss of calcium that leads to an increased risk of fracture
National Osteoporosis Foundation

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Osteomyelitis

An infection of the bone or bone marrow

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Osteoarthritis

Also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease is a group of diseases and mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints

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Occipital Headaches

Occurs in the back of the head at the base of the skull. Referred to headache with neck pain.

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Nociceptors

A sensory receptor that reacts to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain

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Nociceptive

The activity produced in the peripheral and central nervous system by stimuli that have the potential to damage tissue

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Neuropathic Pain

Nerve pain characterized by sharp, stabbing, burning pain which is caused by damage to or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system

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Neuroablation

Procedure designed to destroy nerve endings responsible for the sensation of pain with the use of cold or heat.

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Neuritis

Inflammation of a nerve or the general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system

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Neuralgia

Pain that follows the path of a nerve

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Myositis

Inflammation of the muscles

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Myalgia

“Muscle pain” and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders

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Meralgia Paresthetica

Numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the thigh to the spinal column.

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Lumbosacral joint

A joint of the body, between the last lumbar vertebra and the first sacral segment of the spinal cord

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Lumbago

Low back pain is one of the most commonly seen clinical
entities, both in primary care and pain clinic arena.
Back pain generally is subdivided into axial (nonradiating) and radicular (radiating) pain. An additional subdivision is whether the pain is acute, subacute, or chronic with different modalities for treating each.

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Lordosis

An inward curvature of a portion of the lumbar column.

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Laminectomy

A spine operation to remove the portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina

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Kyphosis

Also called hunchback, is a common condition of a curvature of the upper spine

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Kinesiophobia

Fear of movement

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Ipsilateral

Situated or appearing on or affecting the same side of the body

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Hypofunction

Decrease in functioning

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Hypoesthesia

Decreased tactile sensibility

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Hypoalgesia

Decreased sensitivity to pain

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Hyperesthesia

Abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the senses

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Hyperalgesia

Unusual or pathological sensitivity of the skin or of a particular sense to  stimulation

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Herniated Disc

Condition in which disc tissue passes through the outer wall of the annulus; may result in nerve root compression

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Fibromyalgia

A medical disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and a heightened and painful response to pressure.
National Fibromyalgia Association

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Dystonia

Abnormal tone of any tissue

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Drop Foot (Foot Drop)

Neuromuscular abnormality that impacts the patient’s ability to raise their foot at the ankle.

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Discogenic Back Pain

Pain felt in the back that originates from the disc

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Discitis

An inflammation in the intervertebral disc space

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DJD (Degenerative Joint Disease)

Mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints including cartilage and bone

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Degenerative Disc Disease

Degeneration of the intervertebral disc

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Deconditioning Syndrome

Progressive worsening of a patient’s general fitness due to lack of activity associated with pain

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Compression Fracture

Collapse of a vertebra, caused by trauma or weakened vertebra

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CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome)

Chronic disease characterized by severe pain, swelling, and changes in the color and temperature of skin

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Costochondral Junction Syndrome (also known as Tietze’s Disease)

A rare, inflammatory disorder characterized by chest pain and swelling of the cartilage of one or more of the upper ribs (costochondral junction).

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Coccydynia

Pain in the coccyx or tailbone area, usually brought on by sitting.

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Chiari Malformation

A neurological disorder where the cerebellum, descends out of the skull and crowds the spinal cord which puts pressure on both the brain and spine.

Conquer Chiari

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Cervicalgia

Neck Pain

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Cervical nerve

The spinal nerves from the cervical vertebrae

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Bursitis

The inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body.

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Avascular Necrosis (Osteonecrosis)

A disease where there is cellular death (necrosis) of bone components due to interruption of the blood supply.

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Arthritis

A group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body

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Arachnoiditis

Scarring or adherence of the nerve roots to each other in cauda equina

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Annulus (disc annulus)

The outer wall of the invertebral disc

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Ankylosing Spondylitis

A chronic, inflammatory arthritis and autoimmune disease. It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroilium in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.

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Allodynia

Pain resulting from a stimulus such as a light touch of the skin which would not normally provoke pain; pain due to touching the joints and movement of joints

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Ablation

Removal of a part of biological tissue, usually by heat/cold

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